The SPQ20 sport psychology assessment test provides information about an athlete's personality and mental skills. The instrument is based on a conceptual model of mental toughness covering personality factors and mental skills that have been shown to impact on athletic performance. The SPQ20 is designed to help athletes understand and measure themselves against the psychological factors that affect a player's performance and potential.
The instrument measures twenty dimensions covering four key areas of a player's psychological makeup. The 168-item questionnaire takes about 15 minutes to complete. The SPQ20 uses the Standard Ten (Sten) scoring system. The feedback report provides an in-depth profile of the athlete's personality, mental toughness, and mental skills along with performance improvement tips and suggestions. The instrument's 20 scales measure the following traits and skills.
|ACHIEVEMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS|
|Achievement||Motivated to train hard, prepared to make personal sacrifices to achieve excellence.|
|Adaptability||Open to new ideas and suggestions, keeps up with technical developments.|
|Competitiveness||Enjoys competing and wants to get in the winner's circle.|
|Conscientiousness||Prepares thoroughly, shows self-discipline, stays with the plan.|
|Visualization||Uses imagery to help play well, rehearses performances, stays calm.|
|Intuition||Uses instincts and intuition in making performance decisions.|
|Goal setting||Sets priorities and goals to help manage learning and development.|
|CONFIDENCE AND RESILIENCE|
|Managing pressure||Handles anxiety and tension before important events effectively.|
|Self-efficacy||Displays self-confidence and bounces back from setbacks quickly.|
|Fear of Failure Control||Is afraid of failing, letting people down, and not living up to expectations.|
|Flow||Is able to immerse self in performance and play in the zone.|
|Stress management||Experiencing burnout symptoms such as apathy, fatigue, anxiety, and isolation.|
|Emotions||Regulates feelings and emotions to maximize performance.|
|Self-talk||Talks positively to self to maintain motivation, stay calm, and perform well.|
|Self-awareness||Asks for feedback, demonstrates awareness of strengths and weaknesses.|
|INTERACTION AND SPORTSMANSHIP|
|Ethics||Possess strong principles, behaves ethically, shows sportsmanship.|
|Empathy||Listens to and shows concern for other contestants' views, feelings, and needs.|
|Relationships||Develops relationships, engages in conversation, socializes with other athletes.|
|POWER AND AGGRESSIVENESS|
|Aggressiveness||Adopts an aggressive attitude, tends to intimidate opponents.|
|Power||Enjoys having authority over people, aspires to leadership positions.|
The internal consistency reliabilities of the scales range from 0.7 to 0.8 with a median of 0.7. Correlations between the scales and marker variables are in the range of -0.7 to 0.7 with a median correlation of 0.7. Criterion-related validity studies show statistically significant correlations between athletic performance and test scores on nearly all the scales. The magnitude and range of correlations are consistent with those reported in the literature for the impact of mental factors on athletic performance.
The instrument's norms are based on a large international comparison group of 9,000 respondents. Sixty five percent were men and 35% were women. Fifty three percent were aged up to 20, 24% were aged 21-30, 11% were aged 31-40, and the remaining 12% were over 40. Over two thirds of respondents were from the United Kingdom (38%) and the United States (34%), and about one fifth of respondents were from Canada (12%) and Australia (7%). Differences in scores related to gender and age were small.
10 ~ 15 minutes
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